Local rockers pledge to keep our carnivores Wild ‘n Free – will you?

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In the build up to World Lion Day on 10 August, the Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT), a champion of conservation in Africa, has launched an exciting new project, entitled Wild ‘n Free. Through this initiative, the EWT is calling on all South Africans to be the voice for the voiceless and join the fight against keeping carnivores in captivity for petting, walking-with, photo-tourism, captive hunting and the trade in their body parts. Members of the public unwittingly play an enormous role in an industry that thrives off keeping carnivores like Lions, Cheetah, Leopards and African Wild Dogs behind bars, often for nefarious reasons. Local artists WONDERboom, who were recently announced as the opening act for Guns N’ Roses’ South African tour, are among the first to show their support for this campaign, and are calling on others to do the same. If you stop the visits, you stop the exploitation.

In recent years, South Africa has seen a rapid increase in so-called predator or wildlife parks, which are most often part of the industrial scale production of carnivores for commercial purposes. This is particularly prominent for Lions and Cheetahs. Wild ‘n Free aims to keep carnivores where they belong – in the wild – by promoting the value and role of wild carnivores in natural free-living conditions.

A Wild ‘n Free environment is one in which large carnivores are not reliant on humans for their daily needs, are free to use open space and hunt prey naturally, and can carry out natural social behaviours like mating, holding territories and interacting with competitors. This ensures that they are functional components of a natural system. By keeping our carnivores Wild ‘n Free, we are also conserving larger tracts of land and hundreds of other species of plants and animals, keeping food webs intact. Wild carnivores are the icons of Africa, and attract millions of tourists and their foreign revenue and associated benefits to our country every year. South Africa is the only country in Africa that has a thriving industry of commercial carnivore production, which has tainted our image as a global conservation leader and ecotourism destination. There is no conservation value to be derived from this industry and it is up to all South Africans and visitors to our beautiful country to instead, stand up for our Wild ‘n Free natural heritage.

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We’re calling on everyone to take the Wild ‘n Free pledge: “I pledge to keep all carnivores Wild ‘n Free by not petting, walking, feeding or taking selfies with them. I vow to become an ambassador for wild carnivores and to honour their right to live a natural life. I encourage others to do the same.” Pledge cards can be downloaded and shared to social media to show support for this campaign. As WONDERboom’s lead singer, Cito, explains, “The more we find out the truth behind these commercial wildlife parks and canned hunting facilities, the more we should stand together, in solidarity, and boycott them. Any international visitor will tell you how blessed South Africa is to have the wildlife we have, in its natural habitat. I pledge to not support any of these facilities and I publicly condemn such businesses. We have the choice and power to make a difference in SA’s wildlife welfare.”

The project is focusing on three key themes:

Wild ‘n Free Space

This theme addresses the need for carnivores to have safe space to meet their biological needs. Under this theme, we actively find new space for wild carnivores through reintroduction projects that directly improve their conservation status. As a result of these interventions, there are currently 351 more Cheetahs on 1.15 million ha of Wild ‘n Free space and 227 more Wild Dogs on 584,000 ha of Wild ‘n Free space in South Africa. These reintroductions are expanding to other countries like Malawi and Mozambique, ensuring that Wild ‘n Free space is not confined by political or geographic boundaries.

We also work with farmers to implement ways in which livestock production can be done in harmony with carnivores, for example by providing livestock guarding dogs that protect livestock from predation, removing the need for the farmer to shoot carnivores. We have 197 livestock guarding dogs actively guarding livestock and making 500,000 ha of farmland safe and Wild ‘n Free for carnivores. This also makes farming more profitable and ecologically sustainable.

Wild ‘n Free Animals

This theme addresses the need for carnivores to be valued (both aesthetically and financially) in the wild, not in cages. Under this theme, we promote the need for carnivores to be Wild ‘n Free, and are working with the tourism industry to ensure that Wild ‘n Free destinations and activities are promoted. We are very proud of the Waterberg Wild Dog Tourism Project that generates tourism revenue for landowners who live in harmony with Wild Dogs in Limpopo. Find out more about this ground-breaking project and see the pups at the den at www.waterbergwilddogs.com.

Wild ‘n Free Legislation

This theme addresses the need for legislation that promotes wild carnivores and effectively regulates and ensures compliance of captive facilities. Under this theme, we drive legislative reform and promote compliance to current legislation. We contribute to and drive processes to guide effective legislation to regulate captive carnivores more effectively and promote Wild ‘n Free. We are leading discussions to review what is considered sustainable use in light of captive breeding of Lions for the parts.

Dr Kelly Marnewick, Senior Trade Officer and lead on this project, says: “This project will be a success when carnivores are valued by society in a Wild ‘n Free environment, with no commercial demand for captive animals or their body parts. Wild carnivores play an integral role in nature, where they contribute to conservation and are not vulnerable to exploitation. They do not belong behind bars.”

Read the EWT’s full perspective on captive carnivores here

Ends

 

About the Endangered Wildlife Trust

The Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT), a champion of conservation in Africa, has worked tirelessly for over 45 years to save wildlife and habitats, with our vision being a world in which both humans and wildlife prosper in harmony with nature. From the smallest frog, to the majestic rhino; from sweeping grasslands to arid drylands; from our shorelines to winding rivers: the EWT is working with you, to protect our world.

The EWT’s team of field-based specialists is spread across southern and East Africa, where committed conservation action is needed the most. Working with our partners, including businesses and governments, the EWT is at the forefront of conducting applied research, supporting community conservation and livelihoods, training and building capacity, addressing human wildlife conflict, monitoring threatened species and establishing safe spaces for wildlife range expansion.

A beacon of hope for Africa’s wildlife, landscapes and communities, the EWT is protecting forever, together. Find out more at http://www.ewt.org.za

 

Contacts

Dr Kelly Marnewick

Senior Trade Officer

Wildlife in Trade Programme

Endangered Wildlife Trust

Tel: +27 87 021 0398 ext 594 or +27 82 477 4470

Email: KellyM@ewt.org.za

 

Belinda Glenn

Marketing and Communications Manager

Endangered Wildlife Trust

Tel: +27 87 021 0398 ext 110 or +27 72 616 1787

Email: BelindaG@ewt.org.za

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Flamingo returns from two-year stay in Madagascar

flamingomedia

3 August 2018

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During 2016, the Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) fitted satellite tracking devices to twelve Lesser Flamingos in order to understand the flight behaviour of these threatened birds. The results were surprising, indicating long distance nocturnal movements that had previously been unrecorded. On 9 June 2016, the EWT recorded the first cross-border movement of an individual Lesser Flamingo to Madagascar1. Kucki, named by Eskom’s Environmental Manager Deidre Herbst, after Kucki Low, the first South African woman to get her commercial pilots license and South Africa’s first female flight instructor in 1970, covered a distance of 1,020km in a single flight! This flight was done in just under 24 hours. While on Madagascar, Kucki moved up and down the coast, all the while making her way up to Mahajanga. During her stay in Madagascar, she even survived the onslaught of cyclone Dineo, which hit the coastline in 2017. Then, on 29 May 2018, Kucki finally made her return to mainland Africa, flying from Madagascar to Mozambique, and landing south of Beira. The flight covered a distance of 927km directly over the Mozambican Channel. Curiously, her arrival to and departure from Madagascar occurred at the exact same point in the mouth of the Mangoky River. Over the past two months, she has been getting to know the Mozambican coastline better and we will continue to monitor her movements. This remarkable journey has raised even more questions around why flamingos undertake these movements and what environmental triggers contribute to the duration and direction of flights.

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The Lesser Flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) is listed as Near Threatened in both the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and in the Eskom Red Data Book of Birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. One of the known threats to Lesser Flamingos is collision with power lines. The EWT, in partnership with Eskom, initiated a project to assess the nocturnal movements of these birds, with the aim of mitigating this threat. While conventional bird flight diverters have proved to be effective for bird species that are active during the day, mortalities of species that fly at night, such as the Lesser Flamingo, were still being found under marked power lines. This suggested that conventional mitigation may not be effective, and more research needs to conducted.

The project is supported by Eskom Research, Testing and Development. To assist in decreasing the number of bird mortalities on power line infrastructure, the EWT is encouraging members of the public to report any mortalities of wildlife related to energy infrastructure to its Wildlife and Energy Programme via email at  wep@ewt.org.za  or telephonically (toll free) at 0860 111 535.

[1] The first media release on this particular Lesser Flamingo can be accessed here.

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About the Endangered Wildlife Trust
The Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT), champion of conservation in Africa, has worked tirelessly for over 45 years to save wildlife and habitats, with our vision being a world in which both humans and wildlife prosper in harmony with nature. From the smallest frog, to the majestic rhino; from sweeping grasslands to arid drylands; from our shorelines to winding rivers: the EWT is working with you, to protect our world.

The EWT’s team of field-based specialists is spread across southern and East Africa, where committed conservation action is needed the most. Working with our partners, including businesses and governments, the EWT is at the forefront of conducting applied research, supporting community conservation and livelihoods, training and building capacity, addressing human wildlife conflict, monitoring threatened species and establishing safe spaces for wildlife range expansion.

A beacon of hope for Africa’s wildlife, landscapes and communities, the EWT is protecting forever, together. Find out more at www.ewt.org.za

Contacts
Lourens Leeuwner
Wildlife & Energy Programme Manager
Endangered Wildlife Trust
Tel: +27 72 775 5111
lourensl@ewt.org.za

Belinda Glenn
Marketing and Communications Manager
Endangered Wildlife Trust
Tel: +27 87 021 0398
belindag@ewt.org.za

 

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Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) Increase Captive Lion Bone Export Quota to 1,500

lionbone

17 July 2018

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In 2017, the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) announced an annual export quota of 800 skeletons (with or without the skull) for the international trade in lion bones. This has now been increased to 1,500 skeletons, effective from 7 June 2018.

The Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) and partner organisations raised several concerns regarding the quota published in 2017 in our Technical Response to the DEA’s Proposed Captive Lion Bone Export Quota.[1] We note with concern that many of these have yet to be addressed and further:

  • There is still no evidence to show that the regulated trade in lion bones will not drive demand for wild lion projects, or evidence to show that it will alleviate pressure on wild lion populations.
  • Field observations indicate that wild lions in southern Africa, specifically Mozambique, have been under increasing threat for their parts. The Greater Limpopo Carnivore Programme has recorded an escalation in the number of wild lions poached on the Mozambican side of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area, with a marked increase since 2015. They report that 26% of the lion population in this park has been lost due to poaching for their body parts.[2]
  • In the year immediately preceding the quota (June 2016 to May 2017), 13 captive bred lions in South Africa were poached for their body parts. The EWT notes with concern that during the first year of the quota (June 2017 to May 2018) there were 12 poaching incidents, resulting in 31 lions being killed. These preliminary figures suggest that the poaching of captive lions in South Africa has more than doubled since the quota was established.
  • The mandate to regulate welfare of captive carnivores remains confused as both the DEA and the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries maintain that the welfare mandate is not their responsibility. We continue to have serious concerns about the welfare of captive lions.[3] For instance, in May 2018, over 70 lions awaiting slaughter at an abattoir on the Wag-‘n-Bietjie farm in the Free State were exposed to conditions that resulted in a case of animal cruelty being opened with the South African Police Service by the Bloemfontein Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. This case is still under investigation. Unacceptable welfare conditions include lions being held in small crates and being held without food or water.[4] This case clearly illustrates an absence of proper monitoring and compliance with the law by participants in this trade. It is clear that South Africa is unable to ensure the adequate welfare and husbandry of lions bred for their bones.
  • At the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) World Conservation Congresses held in Honolulu, Hawaii, in September 2016, a formal motion was passed to stop the canned hunting and non-conservation based captive breeding of lion and other predators. The international position is clearly against the captive breeding of wild animals for their parts.
  • Finally, we are concerned for the reputational damage to Brand South Africa and the negative impact that lion bone farming and the related captive lion industry is having on South Africa’s world-class conservation reputation.

The EWT is not aware of any formal public participation process or consultation prior to the decision to increase the annual lion bone export quota, and we have no further information on how or why this decision was made.

The EWT supports the sustainable use of natural resources when it directly contributes to species and habitat conservation efforts, and where communities meaningfully and directly benefit. We do not believe that farming lions for their parts is sustainable use but rather economic exploitation to benefit a select few.

The EWT calls for more transparency in decision making and calls on DEA to review this decision after full consultation and public participation has been undertaken. The EWT further calls for the welfare concerns surrounding captive carnivores to be addressed before any further decisions around the lion bone trade are taken.

End

About the Endangered Wildlife Trust

The Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT), champion of conservation in Africa, has worked tirelessly for over 45 years to save wildlife and habitats, with our vision being a world in which both humans and wildlife prosper in harmony with nature. From the smallest frog, to the majestic rhino; from sweeping grasslands to arid drylands; from our shorelines to winding rivers: the EWT is working with you, to protect our world.

The EWT’s team of field-based specialists is spread across southern and East Africa, where committed conservation action is needed the most. Working with our partners, including businesses and governments, the EWT is at the forefront of conducting applied research, supporting community conservation and livelihoods, training and building capacity, addressing human wildlife conflict, monitoring threatened species and establishing safe spaces for wildlife range expansion.

A beacon of hope for Africa’s wildlife, landscapes and communities, the EWT is protecting forever, together. Find out more at www.ewt.org.za

 

Contacts

Dr Kelly Marnewick

Senior Trade Officer

Wildlife in Trade Programme

Endangered Wildlife Trust

Tel: +27 87 021 0398 or + 27 82 477 4470

kellym@ewt.org.za

 

Belinda Glenn

Marketing and Communications Manager

Endangered Wildlife Trust

Tel: +27 87 021 0398 or +27 72 616 1787

belindag@ewt.org.za

[1]https://www.ewt.org.za/media/2017/SA%20NGO%20Response%20to%20DEA%20Lion%20bone%20Quota%2026%20Jan%202017.pdf

[2] http://www.peaceparks.org/news.php?pid=1793&mid=1813

[3] For more information on these welfare concerns, please read “Fair Game? Improving the well-being of South African wildlife Review of the legal and practical regulation of the welfare of wild animals in South Africa, 2018” accessible at https://cer.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/CER-EWT-Regulation-of-Wildlife-Welfare-Report-25-June-2018.pdf. This report that was developed by the EWT and the Centre for Environmental Rights and was funded by the Lewis Foundation

[4] https://www.iol.co.za/news/opinion/finger-pointing-by-dea-and-daff-leaves-lions-at-free-state-abattoir-in-limbo-15010739

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EWT Conservation Canine Annie nabs three poachers in one day!

Annie

The Endangered Trust (EWT), in support of the fight against rhino and elephant poaching, provides trained dogs to reserves to assist in their anti-poaching operations. These EWT-owned dogs are trained to either track humans or detect wildlife contraband like rhino horn and ivory as well as ammunition. One such dog is Conservation Canine Annie. She has been trained to track and is used to follow up on poacher sightings, fence incursions and to follow poachers away from crime scenes. This week, the EWT Conservation Canine Project got this very excited message from Colin who handles Conservation Canine Annie:

During the early hours of the morning I received a call from one of our neighbouring reserves. One of their night observation posts thought they had seen a poacher walk past. I was asked to go and assist in the follow up with Annie. The poachers had unfortunately walked in the same area as the field rangers making it difficult for me to indicate to Annie which tracks I wanted her to follow. We therefore followed the tracks visually until we found where the poachers had split away into the bush. The poachers were wearing socks over there shoes which made visual tracking very difficult. It became almost impossible once they had turned off into the bush but this is where Annie’s tracking skills came into play. For her, them wearing socks had no effect on her tracking ability.
 
I put her on the tracks and she immediately started to pull on the trail. Over time I have learnt to read Annie’s body language and I see she can read mine. It seems that we can both read when one of us are serious. In this case I could see that her full focus was on the tracks. This was a good sign.
 
Annie tracked through various terrains until I got a visual of the two poachers lying in long grass. They were arrested and a rifle with silencer, ammunition, axe and other poaching equipment were recovered. Undoubtedly the life of a rhino was saved today because of this team’s tracking skills and the many hours spent in observation posts and patrols by the field rangers employed by the reserve to protect their rhino.
 
Unbelievably the action was not over for the day! In a later follow up operation by the SAPS to arrest the poachers’ pick up team, one suspect was arrested by the SAPS and another fled the scene on foot into a neighbouring reserve. I was again asked to track the suspect with Annie. As there were numerous people at the scene contaminating the area, I placed Annie in the vehicle driven by the suspect and gave her the command to follow up. This enables her to know who we are looking for and when she exited the vehicle it did not take her long to get on track. We tracked for about 1 km through very thick bush, made contact and arrested a very tired and demoralised suspect who thought he had evaded the law. Overall a good day for Conservation Canine Annie and her team!”

The EWT is very proud to be associated with this excellent team who have been involved in seven arrests this year alone. With this kind of talent, dedication and team work, poachers are not going to be safe in Colin and Annie’s neighbourhood. We further commend all role players who were involved in the collaboration that resulted in these arrests including the South African Police Services, anti-poaching units, reserve owners and managers. We hope that appropriate sentences are handed down that make a real conservation difference.

The EWT Conservation Canine Project is supported by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Hans Hoheisen Charitable Trust, Relate Bracelets, Royal Canin and several individual donors. Conservation Canine Annie was trained at the Southern African Wildlife College.

If you would like to support these crime busting dogs, please contact Dr Kelly Marnewick on KellyM@ewt.org.za.

About the Endangered Wildlife Trust
The Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT), champion of conservation in Africa, has worked tirelessly for over 45 years to save wildlife and habitats, with our vision being a world in which both humans and wildlife prosper in harmony with nature. From the smallest frog, to the majestic rhino; from sweeping grasslands to arid drylands; from our shorelines to winding rivers: the EWT is working with you, to protect our world.

The EWT’s team of field-based specialists is spread across southern and East Africa, where committed conservation action is needed the most. Working with our partners, including businesses and governments, the EWT is at the forefront of conducting applied research, supporting community conservation and livelihoods, training and building capacity, addressing human wildlife conflict, monitoring threatened species and establishing safe spaces for wildlife range expansion.

A beacon of hope for Africa’s wildlife, landscapes and communities, the EWT is protecting forever, together. Find out more at http://www.ewt.org.za

Contacts

Dr Kelly Marnewick
Senior Trade Officer
Wildlife in Trade Programme
Endangered Wildlife Trust
Tel: +27 82 477 4470 or +27 87 021 0398 ext 594
Email: KellyM@ewt.org.za

Belinda Glenn
Marketing and Communications Manager
Endangered Wildlife Trust
Tel: +27 87 021 0398 ext 110
Email: BelindaG@ewt.org.za

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The EWT calls for action to address the key drivers of population growth

 

A29436 World Population Day Ad_V1_B

As we prepare to mark World Population Day tomorrow, 11 July, the Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT), champion of conservation in Africa, draws attention to the link between human population and the environment.

The global human population is now more than 7.5 billion people. The United Nations estimates that this number will be nearly 9.8 billion by 2050 – this is 30% higher than it is today. Africa’s population is set to double over the same period, increasing at a rate that is 1.5 times the global average. It took until the early 1800s for the world’s population to reach one billion. Even with technological advancements, the Earth’s natural resources cannot support the growing needs of this number of human beings without degrading both the quality of human life and the environment on which we all depend.

The EWT was the first conservation NGO in South Africa to recognise the importance of Population, Health and Environment (PHE) programmes as a means of acknowledging women’s reproductive and health rights, and the role of empowering women to be in a position to determine their ideal family size. These kinds of programmes provide an important model for marginalised rural areas where community health and wellbeing is dependent on ecosystem health, like many of those in which the EWT operates. PHE programmes integrate improved sexual and reproductive health services with conservation actions and support for improved livelihoods. They have been proven to result in greater health, human welfare and conservation outcomes than single sector approaches, and the EWT is proud to be the only South African conservation organisation currently implementing such programmes.

The EWT believes that an integrated PHE approach is the most effective way to achieve sustainability and resiliency for people and the planet and therefore:

  • SUPPORTS and PROMOTES investment in the provision of voluntary rights-based sexual and reproductive health services, information and education, in both developed and developing countries.
  • SUPPORTS universal access to decent education, and the empowerment of women and girls.
  • RECOGNISES THAT interventions that reduce fertility rates must be matched with equal efforts to reduce resource consumption.
  • BELIEVES in the power of integrated approaches to conservation, the empowerment of women, education and rights-based approaches to achieving sustainability.
  • ENCOURAGES government, business and civil society to develop and support integrated programmes that address the issues around human population, development and the environment in a holistic and collaborative approach.

The EWT believes that intergovernmental agencies, governments, and non-governmental environment and development organisations, need to work together more effectively and holistically to address the key drivers of population growth.

The full EWT perspective on human population and the environment can be accessed here.

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About the Endangered Wildlife Trust

The Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT), champion of conservation in Africa, has worked tirelessly for over 45 years to save wildlife and habitats, with our vision being a world in which both humans and wildlife prosper in harmony with nature. From the smallest frog, to the majestic rhino; from sweeping grasslands to arid drylands; from our shorelines to winding rivers: the EWT is working with you, to protect our world.

The EWT’s team of field-based specialists is spread across southern and East Africa, where committed conservation action is needed the most. Working with our partners, including businesses and governments, the EWT is at the forefront of conducting applied research, supporting community conservation and livelihoods, training and building capacity, addressing human wildlife conflict, monitoring threatened species and establishing safe spaces for wildlife range expansion.

A beacon of hope for Africa’s wildlife, landscapes and communities, the EWT is protecting forever, together. Find out more at www.ewt.org.za

 

Contacts

Bridget Jonker

Source to Sea Programme Manager

Endangered Wildlife Trust

Tel: +27 11 372 3600

bridgetc@ewt.org.za

Dr Harriet Davies-Mostert

Head of Conservation

Endangered Wildlife Trust

Tel: +27 11 372 3600

harrietd@ewt.org.za

Belinda Glenn

Marketing and Communications Manager

Endangered Wildlife Trust

Tel: +27 87 021 0398

belindag@ewt.org.za

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Perspective on Human Population and the Environment

 

PURPOSE OF THIS STATEMENT

The purpose of this statement is to inform stakeholders, partners and members of the public on the EWT’s perspective on human population and development as it relates to biodiversity and our environment.

BACKGROUND

The global human population is now more than 7.5 billion people. The United Nations estimates that this number will be nearly 9.8 billion by 2050 – this is 30% higher than it is today. Africa’s population is set to double over the same period, increasing at a rate that is 1.5 times the global average.

It took until the early 1800s for the world’s population to reach one billion. Even with technological advancements, the Earth’s natural resources cannot support the growing needs of this number of human beings without degrading both the quality of human life and the environment on which we all depend. Ten thousand years ago, humans made up 1% of the weight of vertebrate land animals: the remainder of the biomass on earth was all wild animals. Today, wild animals make up just 1%, with the other 99% comprising humans, our farmed livestock and our pets (Smil, 2011). This imbalance poses concerns for the sustainability of many life forms on earth, and is a risk to the quality of life for much of humanity if left unaddressed.

The EWT believes that intergovernmental agencies, governments, and non-governmental environment and development organisations, need to work together more effectively and holistically to address the key drivers of population growth. These include inter alia, poverty, limited access to sexual and reproductive health education and services, and the disregard for women’s rights. At the same time, firm measures must be taken – across the board – to reduce per capita resource consumption while supporting communities to become more resilient to climatic, social and economic changes.

The Endangered Wildlife Trust believes that an integrated Population-Health-Environment (PHE) approach is the most effective way to achieve sustainability and resiliency for people and the planet and therefore:

  • SUPPORTS and PROMOTES investment in the provision of voluntary rights-based sexual and reproductive health services, information and education, in both developed and developing countries.
  • SUPPORTS universal access to decent education, and the empowerment of women and girls.
  • RECOGNISES THAT interventions that reduce fertility rates must be matched with equal efforts to reduce resource consumption.
  • BELIEVES in the power of integrated approaches to conservation, the empowerment of women, education and rights-based approaches to achieving sustainability.
  • ENCOURAGES government, business and civil society to develop and support integrated programmes that address the issues around human population, development and the environment in a holistic and collaborative approach.

 

The EWT bases its positions on the best available information and data available at the time. Our positions and opinions may change as more information and data become available.

 

BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT

A number of counter claims and perceptions abound when discussing human population and the environment. Here are two common ones:

Growing populations are essential for economic development. Proponents of this view believe that an increasing population implies an increase in the number of workers who can function as active participants in the process of economic growth and development. A growing population also constitutes a growing market for goods and services and an expanding market may stimulate business to invest more and grow the economy further, creating more income and employment in the process. While this may be true for an industrial society, in today’s technological-driven societies, it is ideas that drive economies more than the physical numbers of people to work the line. In the developing world, rapid population growth has actually been shown to decelerate the pace of economic development over the long run (1950–2008). This is ascribed to a number of factors, including the age composition of the population and the lower investment and savings potential of large families vs smaller ones. High birth rates and rapid population growth in poor countries actually place a drag on economic development as large families have to spread scarce resources even thinner and often have much less capacity to save, invest, educate and provide adequate nutrition for their children. When the working-age population grows relative to the economically dependent youth, because of sustained reduction in fertility rates, this change in age composition provides a country with an opportunity in which it can potentially raise its level of savings and investment—a phenomenon known as the ‘demographic dividend’.

Through technological advances, we will figure out a way to increase planetary resource limits. The 19th-century economist, Thomas Malthus, warned that at prevailing population growth rates the planet would eventually be unable to feed and sustain itself. These ideas resurfaced 40 years ago, when Paul Ehrlich (The Population Bomb, 1968), Club of Rome, (The Limits to Growth, 1972) and William D. Nordhaus and James Tobin (Is Growth Obsolete?, 1972) postulated that population and conventional economic growth would destroy the planet. An alternative position, emanating from the work of the 20th-century economist and Nobel Prize winner, Robert Solow, is that environmental and other problems can always be resolved through the exercise of human ingenuity. While these two philosophies appear contradictory, we will need to apply both of them if we are to achieve real progress in solving the world’s environmental problems (Harvard Business Review).

Using system dynamics theory and a computer model called “World3,” a team of scientists analysed 12 scenarios that showed different possible patterns – and environmental outcomes – of world development over two centuries, from 1900 to 2100 (Donella Meadows Project). Most of the scenarios result in overshoot and ecosystems collapse – through a combination of depletion of resources, food shortages, industrial decline and other factors. After 2070, the costs of the various technologies, plus the rising costs of obtaining non-renewable resources from increasingly depleted mines, require more capital than the economy can provide. Criticisms of the original World3 model were that it underestimated the power of technology and that it did not fully represent the adaptive resilience of the free market. However, technology and markets are unlikely to prevent overshoot and collapse because they are merely tools to serve society as a whole. If the underlying drivers are to exploit nature, enrich the elites, and ignore the long term, then society will unconsciously select for technologies and markets that destroy the environment, widen the gap between rich and poor, and capitalise for short-term gain. Further to that, current economic models allow us to externalise the environmental costs of production and extraction and this becomes a burden for future generations to bear. Just because we have the potential to develop technological solutions to increase planetary limits, it does not follow that these technologies will be implemented in time to avoid hitting the proverbial wall that constitutes planetary limits.

THE FACTS

Our position on human population and the environment is based on the following facts:

  • Ten thousand years ago, humans made up 1% of the weight of vertebrate land animals: the rest were all wild. Today, wild animals make up just 1%. The other 99% comprises humans, our farmed animals and our pets (Smil, 2011). The WWF Living Planet Index reveals that global populations of fish, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles declined by 58% between 1970 and 2012.
  • The state of the world’s marine fish stocks in 2016 puts us in a dire situation with 31.4% of assessed fish stocks estimated as fished at a biologically unsustainable level (overfished) and fully fished stocks at 58.1% (FAO, 2016).
  • We are currently using up the resources of 1.7 Earths— unless things change, we will need three by 2050 (Global Footprint Network).
  • Due to population growth, availability of land per person in developing countries is expected to halve by 2050.
  • Thirty-eight percent of current agricultural land has been degraded (Food and Agriculture Organization).
  • More than 4 billion people will live in regions short of water by 2050 (waterfootprint.org).
  • The global demand for energy will increase by 30% by 2040 (International Energy Agency), causing further degradation of the environment to source fuel
  • In developing countries, 776 million people are considered undernourished – about one person in six. Undernourishment is a central manifestation of poverty. It also deepens other aspects of poverty, by reducing the capacity for work and resistance to disease, and by affecting children’s mental development and educational achievements. Reducing poverty can reduce resource degradation in instances where poverty is driving intensification of natural resource use (Roe et al, 2015).
  • Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest fertility rate in the world, estimated at 5.2 per woman. In some countries (e.g. Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Niger and Uganda), fertility rates may be as high as 6.0 per woman and beyond.
  • There are over 1.8 billion young people aged between 10 and 24 in the world today, the most populous generation of young people in history. Almost 90% of young people live in developing countries, where they tend to make up a large proportion of the population. A population’s age structure (the relative size of each age group) deeply affects development opportunities and plays a major role in security and governance challenges. Rapid population growth often results in increased pressure on the environment. The challenges produced by high fertility rates and the impacts of climate change often intersect in the parts of the world least prepared to adapt.
  • South Africa’s rate of population growth has increased from approximately 1.17% in 2002 to 1.61% in 2017. There are 16.7 million children under the age of 14 in South Africa, representing 30% of the total population (StatsSA, 2017).
  • An in-depth study of four sub-Saharan African countries found that more than 60% of adolescents did not know how to prevent pregnancy and more than 30% did not know of a source for contraceptives. Unmet needs for contraception are due to limited access to information, quality and affordable adolescent and youth sexual and reproductive health services (Amnesty International)
  • According to the UN, there are over 200 million women in the world who want to avoid a pregnancy but are not able to use modern contraceptives, mostly because they do not have access to them either due to a lack of services or to a range of cultural reasons

 

There are four key concepts that underline our position on human population and the environment:

Women’s empowerment through a rights-based approach is central to the wellbeing of the human population and supporting biodiversity

All women should have the right to determine whether they want to have children or not, along with all other human rights. This includes the right to access and use contraception without discrimination or coercion. Women and girls deserve equal access to education, full political rights, the ability and freedom to gain employment and to have every right and opportunity enjoyed by men. We know that where women have such rights, fertility rates almost always decrease. The war on poverty must not translate into a war on the poor. Achieving universal access to and information on voluntary family planning, empowerment of women and a reduction in poverty throughout the world will result in fewer unintended pregnancies, improved health and well-being of women and their families, and continued decline in global population growth, while maintaining basic human rights and dignity and improving the resiliency of families.

Interventions to reduce fertility rates in low-income countries should be matched with equal efforts to reduce resource consumption in developed countries

While birth rates are comparatively low in most developed nations, the consumption rates per capita are unsustainably high and put massive pressure on natural resources. We need action from governments to promote innovative and technological solutions to resource use reduction, efficiency and waste management. This needs to be done in tandem with a reduction in fertility rates – they are not mutually exclusive. The Royal Society states that there are no scientifically credible estimates for a global “optimum population” as far as environmental sustainability is concerned, partly because the level of consumption is a critical factor. For instance, the planet can sustain far fewer people following a high meat and high carbon consumption pattern (current trends are towards this) than it can a low meat, low carbon lifestyle (a trend towards this is necessary).

An integrated Population-Health-Environment (PHE) approach is the most effective way to achieve sustainability for people and the planet

Population, Health and Environment (PHE) is an integrated community-based approach to development. PHE projects acknowledge and address the complex connections between families, their health, and their environment. They emphasise bringing conservation and reproductive health services to communities that both need and want them—particularly those who live outside the reach of any healthcare system, and on the edge of some of the world’s most vulnerable natural ecosystems. The reasons for this approach are that people face interconnected challenges, which need to be addressed holistically. This approach is also cost-effective – partner organisations are able to pool resources and reach new audiences. Integrated programs benefit individuals, but they also reap benefits at national, regional, and international levels. Improved demographic trends and conservation efforts in biodiverse areas are critical to ensuring long-term prospects for sustainable development and sustainable livelihoods. The effectiveness of integrated PHE investments for conservation outcomes was positively validated in high priority marine and terrestrial conservation sites with PHE programs in Philippines, Nepal, India, Mozambique, Madagascar, Kenya, Cameroon and the Central African Republic (López-Carr, 2007).

Governments have a key role to play

Governmental agencies need to bring consumption in line with planetary limits while ensuring equal opportunity for all people to live dignified and sustainable lives. They need to lead the transition towards a low carbon economy and support the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). They need to provide rights-based sexual and reproductive health services to women and girls, ensure decent education for all, and tackle cultural issues that restrict women’s ability to make fundamental life choices, including the choice of family size. These goals are part of an equality and justice agenda, but also have a major demographic impact that results in additional benefits for environmental sustainability and human welfare by slowing rapid population growth rates. These additional benefits will be most pronounced in countries currently projected to double or triple their populations by 2050, yet which are already suffering the effects of severe environmental degradation and inability to meet basic universal welfare needs. However, it is important to stress that it is not morally acceptable to use coercion, including economic coercion, to achieve reductions in fertility.

What the EWT and our partners are doing

The EWT supports and encourages investment in the provision of SRHR and family planning information, education and services across the globe, in developed and developing countries. We also support and encourage universal access to decent primary and secondary schooling. We will actively lend our support to rights-based organisations campaigning on these issues, as well as those seeking a transition to a low-carbon reduced consumption economy. The EWT only supports a voluntary rights-based approach to sexual and reproductive health services.

The EWT has joined the Population Sustainability Network (PSN) who is working to ensure that population dynamics are taken into account in the SDG international development framework, encouraging increased investment in voluntary family planning programmes that respect and protect rights, while also working to reduce unsustainable consumption.

Pathfinder International is a global non-profit organisation that focuses on reproductive health, family planning, HIV/AIDS prevention and care, and maternal health. The organisation operates in more than 20 developing countries throughout Africa, Asia, the Near East, and Latin America. Pathfinder places reproductive health services at the centre of all that it does – believing that health care is not only a fundamental human right but is critical for expanding opportunities for women, families, communities, and nations, while paving the way for transformations in development. The EWT is working with Pathfinder on the first integrated PHE project in South Africa in the North West Province, South Africa, to demonstrate the value that integrated programmes can bring to both conservation and human development causes.

In conclusion, we need to be able to have new and calmer discussions about human population and the environment. There is little doubt that population growth, coupled with unbalanced resource consumption, intensifies climate change, habitat loss, species extinction and poverty. Instead of asking ourselves whether we can survive with continued population growth, we might ask what that reality will look like and will we want to. In the technological age, it is ideas, not a head count, which will drive sustainable economic growth into the future.

For further information, please contact:

 

Bridget Jonker

Source to Sea Programme Manager

Endangered Wildlife Trust

Tel: +27 11 372 3600

Cell: +27 76 440 5306

bridgetc@ewt.org.za

 

Dr Harriet Davies-Mostert

Head of Conservation

Endangered Wildlife Trust

Tel: +27 11 372 3600

Cell: +27 82 507 9223

harrietd@ewt.org.za

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Climate Change Action Plan for Nandi County Set to boost conservation of Grey Crowned Cranes and wetlands in the county

Nandi County Government is set to be among the 1st counties to develop a climate change action plan in Kenya. Wetlands ecosystems have not been spared from negative impacts of climate change. One such ecosystem is Kingwal wetland located in Nandi County of Western Kenya, an important breeding and feeding habitat for Grey Crowned Crane. Kingwal wetland is among four project sites of the Kenya Crane and Wetlands Conservation Project implemented under the ICF/EWT/CANCO partnership. The other project sites are Kipsaina, Sio Siteko, and Lake OL Bolossat.

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Project sites: Kenya Crane and wetlands conservation project

Prolonged droughts and flooding are among climate change related impacts adversely impacting Kingwal wetland and survival of Grey Crowned Cranes. Prolonged droughts has seen the wetland being used as dry season grazing reserve, contributing to opening up of the wetland due to heavy presence of livestock. Besides degradation of the wetland, heavy presence of livestock, and at times dogs that accompany herders disturb breeding and feeding cranes. Flooding on the other hand has resulted to crane nests being washed away.
Developed over a five month period (February to June 2018) with ICF/EWT/CANCO contribution, through Green Belt Movement, a local partner, the vision of Nandi County Climate Change Action plan is “A prosperous County that is resilient to climate change, with a low carbon economy contributing to sustainable development of Kenya”. Its goal is to “Strengthen Nandi County’s adaptive capacity and resilience to climate change, and promote sustainable development as a mitigation strategy for the wellbeing of human and ecological systems”. The action plan has the following strategic objectives;
• Increase food security through sustainable production systems that guarantees ecosystems integrity.
• Mainstream climate change adaptation in the environment sector for resilient ecological and human systems.
• Enhance water security for climate change resilience
• Invest in a resilient energy system through an energy generation mix for sustainable development
• Support realization of Climate resilient infrastructure
• Promote public awareness, innovation and development of appropriate technologies and capacity that promote climate resilient development
• Promote Sustainable financing for climate change action through resource mobilization
• Enhance governance and coordination of climate change adaptation and mitigation
• Strengthen adaptive capacity of vulnerable groups* (women, orphans and vulnerable children, the elderly, and persons with disability) through adoption of a rights based approach.
The Climate Change Act 2016, and the National Adaptation plan of Kenya 2015-2030, among others, require County Governments to integrate and mainstream climate change actions, interventions and duties into County Integrated Development Plans (CIDPs), budgeting and implementation structures for realizing equitable sustainable development.

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 Kenya Country Coordinator (Rudolf Makhanu) presenting the CC Action plan during validation meeting held on 18th June 2018, Kapsabet, Nandi County

The action plan, which mainstreams adoption of ecosystem based adaptation approach, provides a good starting point for collective stakeholder action to conserve fragile ecosystems such as wetlands and threatened biodiversity such as Grey Crowned Crane and Sitatunga antelope. It serves as a vehicle for ensuring coordinated delivery of obligations required of the Nandi County and its stakeholders, the priority being to build climate resilience in as low carbon a manner as possible to ensure Nandi County and the country at large contributes to the goals of the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals.
Having sailed through the critical stage of stakeholder validation, held on 18th June 2018, the action plan is now set to be tabled for discussion in the county assembly for final endorsement.

 

 

Article by Rudolf Makhanu

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Figure 2: Kenya Country Coordinator (Rudolf Makhanu) presenting the CC Action plan
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Endangered Wildlife Trust wins prestigious ‘Science Oscar’

NSTF release.jpg

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The Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT), champion of conservation in Africa, is extremely proud to announce that team member, Wendy Collinson, was the recipient of the TW Kambule-NSTF Award: Emerging Researcher at last night’s National Science and Technology (NSTF) awards.

The NSTF-South32 Awards gala dinner took place in Gauteng on 28 June 2018, to celebrate the most outstanding contributions to science, engineering and technology (SET), and innovation. This is the 20th anniversary celebration of the awards, which are the largest SET and innovation awards in South Africa, and were the first of their kind in the country. They are known as the ‘Science Oscars’ and this year were presented by the Honourable Minister of Science and Technology, Ms Mmamoloko Kubayi-Ngubane, who is the event’s patron.

Wendy scooped the prestigious award for her work in establishing and running the EWT’s Wildlife and Roads Project, which aims to reduce the negative impacts of transport infrastructure on wildlife, and ultimately improve driver safety through a reduction in wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVCs). Wendy is overseeing numerous research projects that examine the impacts of roads in South Africa, in order to develop solutions to reduce roadkill. Most of her projects involve collaborations with stakeholders in the transport sector, as well as academia, regarding the design of future developments. This body of knowledge is informing the development and planning decisions around future road design, which will lessen the impact of roads on South African fauna and flora. “It is an honour to be nominated, it is an outstanding achievement to reach the finals, and an exceptional milestone and celebration of excellence to win one of these awards”, said Wendy.

The EWT was also recognised as a finalist in the NSTF-GreenMatter Award category, for its outstanding contribution to the Groen Sebenza Initiative, an innovative project aimed at developing skills and bridging the gap between education and job opportunities in the biodiversity sector which was initiated by the Department of Environmental Affairs in 2013.

 

With numerous research projects across the African continent, the EWT strives to undertake high-quality scientific studies and frequently publishes scientific papers in international peer-reviewed journals. “Through our partnerships with academic institutions, we ensure that our scientific understanding is innovative and contributes towards finding solutions to some of the challenges we face in conservation. Through initiatives like Groen Sebenza, we safeguard our conservation champions of the future and provide opportunities to expand their knowledge, and learn from the best”, concluded Wendy.

The core supporters of the EWT’s Wildlife and Roads Project are Bridgestone SA, Bakwena Platinum Corridor Concessionaire, De Beers Group of Companies, Ford Wildlife Foundation, N3 Toll Concession and TRAC N4, dedicated to minimising the negative interactions between wildlife and transport infrastructure.

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About the Endangered Wildlife Trust

The Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT), champion of conservation in Africa, has worked tirelessly for over 45 years to save wildlife and habitats, with our vision being a world in which both humans and wildlife prosper in harmony with nature. From the smallest frog, to the majestic rhino; from sweeping grasslands to arid drylands; from our shorelines to winding rivers: the EWT is working with you, to protect our world.

The EWT’s team of field-based specialists is spread across southern and East Africa, where committed conservation action is needed the most. Working with our partners, including businesses and governments, the EWT is at the forefront of conducting applied research, supporting community conservation and livelihoods, training and building capacity, addressing human wildlife conflict, monitoring threatened species and establishing safe spaces for wildlife range expansion.

A beacon of hope for Africa’s wildlife, landscapes and communities, the EWT is protecting forever, together. Find out more at www.ewt.org.za

 

Contacts

Wendy Collinson

Project Executant: Wildlife and Roads Project

Endangered Wildlife Trust

Tel: +27 73 596 1673

wendyc@ewt.org.za

 

Belinda Glenn

Marketing and Communications Manager

Endangered Wildlife Trust

Tel: +27 87 021 0398

belindag@ewt.org.za

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Building capacity and team work: East Africa team together in Rwanda

ICF/EWT East Africa team participated in a training on Conservation Agreements in Musanze Rwanda. It was held at Dianna Fossey Gorilla Fund Center, and facilitated by Conservation International. Attended by over 25 participants drawn from government and civil society organizations, the 2018 training aimed at achieving the following objectives;
1. Introduce the conservation agreements model to new participants while widening and deepening the model understanding for participants trained in 2017
2. Offer a platform for organizations already using the conservation agreements and other community based conservation approaches to share their experiences and challenges, and to further co-create opportunities and solutions
The 1st day focused on introducing the conservation agreements model to new participants. The second day was dedicated to sharing experiences on community engagement.

The team made field visits to project sites in Rwanda to familiarize and review project progress. Of the areas visited included Rugezi Marsh, where fodder, piggery and bee keeping livelihood projects that are under Conservation Agreement model. We also visited Akanyaru wetland, and witnessed the on-going peat to power project, that threatens the continued existence of the wetland and associated biodiversity. We also visited Nyabarongo wetland and participated in Omuganda (community service program), where we interacted with a school crane conservation club. The team also held an internal session to update each other on the status of the projects, reviewed results chains for the conservation agreement and crane custodianship strategies as well as developed a results chain for awareness creation

 

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Jimmy helping move bricks for a new house being built as part of Omuganda (Community self help)

 

Article by Rudolf Makhanu, Kenya Country Coordinator

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New report finds inadequate protection for the well-being of South African wildlife

Fair Game

25 June 2018

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In a joint report published today, the Centre for Environmental Rights (CER) and the Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) set out findings of a review of the regulation of the welfare of wild animals in South Africa.

The report, entitled Fair Game? Improving the Regulation of the Well-being of South African Wildlife finds that there are major gaps in both legislation and the implementation of those laws, leaving the well-being of wild animals without adequate protection. The organisations recommend the clarification of the legal mandate for wildlife welfare, and the updating of legislation. They also call for greater investment in compliance monitoring and enforcement, and a standardised and transparent permitting system for activities involving and affecting wildlife.

Historically, our regulatory system has distinguished between animal welfare on one hand, and biodiversity conservation on the other – and regulate those separately in different laws.  This means that conservation laws applicable to wild animals under the physical control of humans, whether held temporarily or permanently – are often unsuited to addressing the issue of welfare of those wild animals. Welfare laws, on the other hand, do not necessarily consider conservation objectives. To make matters worse, both sectors suffer from very limited resources for compliance and enforcement. In practice, the current legal regime ultimately provides little protection for wild animals.

South Africa has, in recent years, seen a proliferation of facilities that involve the captive management of wildlife for commercial purposes. The legislation that governs the welfare of these wild animals has not kept pace with the rapid changes in the wildlife industry. As a result, the welfare of many species of wildlife has often become compromised. Welfare standards that may be suited to domestic animals cannot be considered suitable to the full spectrum of species of wildlife.

Media reports of the practical state of welfare protection for wild animals in South Africa demonstrate the need for urgent reform in laws and practices. For example, an incident in 2014 involving the death of a giraffe while being transported in an open-air truck on a national highway drew great public concern when the driver drove under a bridge that was not tall enough for the giraffe to safely pass under. No prosecutions for this grave incident have been reported to date.

More recent examples include dozens of neglected and starving captive lions on a Limpopo farm and a lion “abattoir” in the Free State housing over 200 lions awaiting slaughter for lion bone exports, currently in limbo as both the Departments of Environmental Affairs (DEA) and the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) say that the welfare situation is not their responsibility.

In addition to this, the increase in reported incidents of captive carnivore attacks on people, many resulting in fatalities, are not being legally addressed. Each of these incidents, a small fraction of those going on country-wide, represents a failure of the system in protecting the animals.

Whilst regulations may exist for the captive management of some selected species, and laws may be in place to regulate the numbers being traded, the welfare of captive wildlife, and the mandate of the authorities to monitor compliance, is currently insufficiently protected.

The joint report was prompted by growing concern amongst civil society and NGOs, including the EWT and the CER, about the absence of welfare considerations in conservation laws and practices, and the fact that existing welfare laws do not adequately cater for wild animals, which are increasingly the subjects of breeding farms and other forms of intensive management.

CER Wildlife Attorney Aadila Agjee says that: The combination of government agencies regulating wildlife and welfare, outdated and at times inadequate laws, inconsistent application and enforcement of those laws – and the strong focus on the commercial exploitation of wildlife – make clear that the welfare of wild animals is not currently a priority in South Africa. A set mandate, adequate budget for staffing, training and resources, updating of laws and practices, and consistency in the treatment of the wild animals to prioritise their well-being are critical.”

The report examines the legal and practical regulation of the welfare of wild animals in South Africa with a view to constructive engagement with the national and provincial departments charged with implementing both conservation and welfare laws,[1] and other relevant stakeholders, with the aim of reform.

“In order constructively to address the gaps and shortcomings in the legal framework that governs the well-being of wild animals, the EWT and the CER embarked on a process of identifying where and how the laws should be changed. Broad consultation with a large number of stakeholders in the commercial wildlife industry, welfare sector and government has strengthened the findings and recommendations. The report thus provides a positive platform from which the relevant government authorities can now address the dire need for vastly improved welfare governance for our wildlife,” said Yolan Friedmann, EWT CEO.

Importantly, the report also places the issue of wildlife welfare in a Constitutional context.[2]  The report argues that the improvement of welfare laws, as recently confirmed by the courts, and their consistent implementation, compliance, monitoring and enforcement is an urgent Constitutional imperative.

The report concludes by providing legal and practical recommendations for the improvement and proper regulation, compliance with and enforcement of good minimum welfare standards for wild animals under the control of humans.  These recommendations serve as a catalyst to open discussions with and tender assistance to the relevant government and legislative bodies for the improvement of wildlife welfare laws and practices.

Download the full report

Download the executive summary

[1] These include the national Departments of Environmental Affairs, Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries; provincial environment departments and conservation agencies, and provincial agriculture departments.

[2] Section 24 of the Constitution guarantees everyone the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being and to have the environment protected, for the benefit of present and future generations, through reasonable legislative and other measures that prevent pollution and ecological degradation; promote conservation; and secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources while promoting justifiable economic and social development.

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Contacts

Aadila Agjee

Attorney

Centre for Environmental Rights

Tel: +27 10 442 6830

Email: Aagjee@cer.org.za

 

Annette Gibbs

Communications Manager

Centre for Environmental Rights

Tel: +27 21 447 1647

Email: Agibbs@cer.org.za

 

Yolan Friedmann

CEO

Endangered Wildlife Trust

Tel: +27 87 021 0398

Email: YolanF@ewt.org.za

 

Dr Harriet Davies-Mostert

Head of Conservation

Endangered Wildlife Trust

Tel: +27 87 021 0398

Email: HarrietD@ewt.org.za

 

Belinda Glenn

Marketing and Communications Manager

Endangered Wildlife Trust

Tel: +27 87 021 0398

Email: BelindaG@ewt.org.za

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